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Planning and Implementation Process: A Path to a Net Zero Future


Achieving a net zero future is a complex and multifaceted challenge that requires a strategic and coordinated approach. Various strategies, each with its own strengths and challenges, play a critical role in this journey. Below, we explore different approaches and how they contribute to the broader goal of sustainability.

Place-Based Approach: Local Solutions for Local Needs

The place-based approach focuses on designing solutions that are specifically tailored to the unique environmental, economic, and social conditions of each area.


  • Local Relevance: Solutions are customised to meet the specific needs of local communities.
  • Community Engagement: Active involvement of local stakeholders fosters a sense of ownership and responsibility.
  • Integrated Solutions: This approach allows for the coordination of various sectors (transport, housing, energy) to create holistic and sustainable interventions.


  • Resource Intensive: Requires significant investment in local capacity building and infrastructure.
  • Variable Success: Outcomes can vary widely between areas due to differing local capabilities and resources.

People-Based Approach: Empowering Individuals

The people-based approach focuses on individual and family-level interventions, providing support and resources to help people reduce their carbon footprints.


  • Direct Impact: Tailored support such as subsidies for energy-efficient appliances or electric vehicles can lead to immediate reductions in emissions.
  • Mobility: Programmes can be designed to be portable and scalable across different regions.


  • Scalability: Individual efforts may not be sufficient to drive large-scale systemic change.
  • Coordination: Requires substantial coordination to ensure equitable access to resources.

Sector-Based Approach: Transforming Industries

This strategy targets specific sectors—such as transport, energy, and manufacturing—to implement systemic changes that reduce emissions.


  • Focused Impact: Directly addresses major sources of emissions, potentially achieving significant reductions.
  • Innovation: Encourages industry-specific technological advancements and practices.


  • Dependency on Industry Cooperation: Success relies on the willingness and ability of industries to adapt.
  • Regulatory Hurdles: May require extensive regulatory changes and incentives.

Universal Approach: Broad and Inclusive Policies

A universal approach involves implementing broad policies designed to benefit everyone, such as national renewable energy mandates or universal basic income tied to green initiatives.


  • Wide Reach: Policies can impact the entire population, leading to significant aggregate reductions in emissions.
  • Equity: Ensures that all individuals have access to the benefits of green initiatives.


  • Implementation Complexity: Broad policies can be difficult to design and implement effectively.
  • Dilution of Impact: May not address local specificities and could lead to suboptimal outcomes in certain areas.

Targeted Populations Approach: Focusing on Specific Groups

This strategy focuses on particular demographic groups that are either major contributors to emissions or are most vulnerable to climate change impacts.


  • Efficiency: Resources can be concentrated where they are most needed or can have the greatest impact.
  • Equity Focus: Helps ensure that vulnerable populations are not left behind in the transition to net zero.


  • Inclusivity: May overlook the needs of other groups not deemed a priority.
  • Complexity: Requires precise targeting and implementation to be effective.

Technology-Driven Approach: Leveraging Innovation

Utilising cutting-edge technologies to reduce emissions and enhance sustainability, this approach emphasises innovation and digital solutions.


  • Scalability: Technological solutions can often be scaled rapidly and deployed widely.
  • Efficiency: Can lead to significant improvements in energy efficiency and reductions in emissions.


  • Access and Equity: Ensuring equitable access to new technologies can be challenging.
  • Dependency on Development: Success relies on the continuous development and adoption of new technologies.

Conclusion: A Call for Collaboration

While each approach has its merits, the path to a net zero future likely requires a combination of these strategies. SERT Group’s place-based approach offers a compelling model, emphasising local engagement and tailored solutions. However, achieving net zero will require the cooperation and integration of various approaches, ensuring that we leverage the strengths of each strategy while mitigating their weaknesses.

As we move forward, it is crucial that all stakeholders—governments, businesses, communities, and individuals—come together to share their beliefs, resources, and innovations. By doing so, we can create a holistic and effective roadmap to a sustainable future for all UK cities.

Mark Edwards, CEO, SERT Group

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